Free Download Quantum Computing for Everyone Book in PDF written by Chris Bernhardt and Published by The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England.
The aim of this book is to give an introduction to quantum computing that anyone who is comfortable with high school mathematics and is willing to put in a little work can understand. We will study qubits, entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum algorithms, among other quantum related topics. The goal is not to give some vague idea of these concepts but to make them crystal clear. Quantum computing is often in the news: China teleported a qubit from earth to a satellite; Shor’s algorithm has put our current encryption methods at risk; quantum key distribution will make encryption safe again; Grover’s algorithm will speed up data searches. But what does all this really mean? How does it all work? All of this will be explained.
Can this be done without using mathematics? No, not if we want to really understand what is going on. The underlying ideas come from quantum mechanics and are often counterintuitive. Attempts to describe these in words don’t work because we have no experience of them in our everyday lives. Even worse, verbal descriptions often give the impression that we have understood something when we really haven’t. The good news is that we really do not need to introduce much mathematics. My role as a mathematician is to simplify the mathematics as much as possible—just sticking to the absolute essentials—and to give elementary examples to illustrate both how it is used and what it means. That said, the book probably contains mathematical ideas that you have not seen before, and, as with all mathematics, new concepts can seem strange at first. It is important not to gloss over the examples but to read them carefully, following each step of the calculations.
Quantum computing is a beautiful fusion of quantum physics with computer science. It incorporates some of the most stunning ideas of physics from the twentieth century into an entirely new way of thinking about computation. The basic unit of quantum computing is the qubit. We will see what qubits are and what happens when we measure them. A classical bit is either 0 or 1. If it’s 0 and we measure it, we get 0. If it’s 1 and we measure 1, we get 1. In both cases the bit remains unchanged. The situation is totally different for qubits. A qubit can be in one of an infinite number of states—a superposition of both 0 and 1—but when we measure it, as in the classical case, we just get one of two values, either 0 or 1. The act of measurement changes the qubit. A simple mathematical model describes all of this precisely.
Table of Contents
- Linear Algebra
- Spin and Qubits
- Bell’s Inequality
- Classical Logic, Gates, and Circuits
- Quantum Gates and Circuits
- Quantum Algorithms
- Impact of Quantum Computing
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